This article will be shorter than my rom article, this will also not include a guide because allowing your phone to access the root files is different for every phone.
What is Root?
Basically root is allowing your phone access the root files within your phone. It makes it so certain apps can be run and so roms can be installed.
There are certain apps like Root Explorer and there used to be a screenshot app before the days of ICS. The most important features of Root, to me is, are roms. Download a rom and you will get many many new features to your phone, everything from the look of it to the speed of it. It even helps with how much space you have.
Allowing your phone to get root is dependent on the phone, all of them are a bit different, my droid 1 was a process back in the day, the evo was a bit easier but still pretty crazy where as the nexus s was decently EASY.
ANDROIDHEADLINES.COM is NOT responsible for anything bad that happens to your phone while attempting to do this. You can ask questions but we are NOT obligated to answer them and we can not be BLAMED for things that go wrong, this is for the brave.