Even though we have been using Chrome to Phone since May of this year, Google has now "official" and available to all users with Android 2.2. (Froyo), The app is now available in the market. Chrome to Phone allows websites to be pushed from the Chrome browser to your Android device while certain apps like Maps and YouTube will take over for the browser when appropriate. From the Chrome browser, click the new mobile icon for any website you want to pull up on your phone and it will automatically push it to your phone. The code will be open so that hopefully Chrome can find its way to other browsers. Google is considering bringing Chrome to other mobile OS but nothing specific was mentioned as being in the works. That answer came when asked if the iPhone would get this app.
Chrome to phone is available as an app as well as a Google Chrome extension.